An outstanding goal in bioengineering is to design macromolecules that assemble into complex higher order structures. Considerable progress has been demonstrated in the last 20 years in designing DNA (and RNA) sequences to form interesting structures and materials. Progress in using proteins as the building blocks has been much more challenging, owing in part to the much greater complexity of the rules that govern the native structures of proteins. Nonetheless, Nature has achieved spectacular assemblies using protein molecules as her building blocks; virus shells, microtubules, and bacterial S-layers provide a few striking examples.
In order to design a novel protein to self-assemble into a complex but well-defined architecture, the protein molecule must contain multiple self-associating interfaces. It turns out, somewhat surprisingly, that two distinct self-associating interfaces is sufficient to create a wide range of outcomes, from cages to extended three-dimensional materials. The designed assembly problem therefore boils down to desiging a protein molecule having two geometrically precise interaction interfaces. A design idea we put forward in 2001 was to create protein molecules of this type by fusing together two simpler oligomeric proteins, e.g. a dimer and a trimer. The resulting fusion protein inherits the self-associating interfaces, and thereore the symmetry properties, of the two daughter components. The key problem is how to make such a fusion in a way that the two oligomeric components are held in a specific geometry required to make some desired architecture. One solution is to genetically fuse an oligomer that ends in an alpha helix to an oligomer that begins in an alpha helix, using helix-preferring amino acids for any extra linking residues. If the two oligomeric components are connected by a continuous helix running between them, then their relative orientation can be anticipated in advance. In initial proof of concept experiments, two students, Jennifer Padilla and Chris Colovos, identified a dimer and trimer that could be fused in a way that was predicted to give the right geometry for self-assembly of a 12-subunit tetrahedral cage, about 160 Å in diameter and a half-megadalton in mass. Those experiments gave rise to assemblies that were roughly consistent with the design, but which were too polymorphic to crystallize and confirm the results.
In 2012, a new student (Yen-Ting Lai) re-inspected the originally designed protein sequence and identified a few amino acids that could be causing steric classes and preventing correct assembly. A new construct was obtained, differening from the original design by just two amino acids, which assembled into homogeneous 12-subunit complexes. The protein was crystallized and shown to match the designed tetrahedral cage structure overall, but with substantial deviations arising from alternative packing modes of the dimeric component, combined with helix flexibility. This success was a decisive demonstration of the ability to design highly symmetric self-assembling materials of the type we originally dubbed ‘nanohedra’. At essentially the same time, former student Neil King, as a postdoc in David Baker’s laboratory, was able to design two novel protein assemblies of comparable size and complexity by using computational interface design. A natural oligomer (a trimer) provided one self-associating interface, and a second geometrically specific (dimeric) interface was designed computationally using the Rosetta-Design program; several computationally designed constructs had to be screened to find successful designs. These design strategies and others being developed in various laboratories are opening the way to a broad range of engineered protein materials with biomedical and nanotechnology applications.
| Yeates TO
Geometric Principles for Designing Highly Symmetric Self-Assembling Protein Nanomaterials.
Annu Rev Biophys. May 2017. 46:23-42. 2017 PMID: 28301774
| Lai YT, Hura GL, Dyer KN, Tang HY, Tainer JA, Yeates TO
Designing and defining dynamic protein cage nanoassemblies in solution.
Sci Adv. Dec 2016. 2(12):e1501855. 2016 PMID: 27990489
| Bale JB, Gonen S, Liu Y, Sheffler W, Ellis D, Thomas C, Cascio D, Yeates TO, Gonen T, King NP, Baker D
Accurate design of megadalton-scale two-component icosahedral protein complexes.
Science. Jul 2016. 353(6297):389-94. 2016 PMID: 27463675
| Yeates TO, Liu Y, Laniado J
The design of symmetric protein nanomaterials comes of age in theory and practice.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.. Jul 2016. 39:134-143. 2016 PMID: 27476148
| Lai YT, Reading E, Hura GL, Tsai KL, Laganowsky A, Asturias FJ, Tainer JA, Robinson CV, Yeates TO
Structure of a designed protein cage that self-assembles into a highly porous cube.
Nat Chem. Dec 2014. 6(12):1065-71. 2014 PMID: 25411884
PMC4239666 10.1038/nchem.2107 NIHMS632817
| Lai YT, Tsai KL, Sawaya MR, Asturias FJ, Yeates TO
Structure and flexibility of nanoscale protein cages designed by symmetric self-assembly.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.. May 2013. 135(20):7738-43. 2013 PMID: 23621606
PMC3700533 10.1021/ja402277f NIHMS477800
| King NP, Sheffler W, Sawaya MR, Vollmar BS, Sumida JP, André I, Gonen T, Yeates TO, Baker D
Computational design of self-assembling protein nanomaterials with atomic level accuracy.
Science. Jun 2012. 336(6085):1171-4. 2012 PMID: 22654060
PMC4138882 10.1126/science.1219364 HHMIMS613117
| Lai YT, Cascio D, Yeates TO
Structure of a 16-nm cage designed by using protein oligomers.
Science. Jun 2012. 336(6085):1129. 2012 PMID: 22654051
| Padilla JE, Colovos C, Yeates TO
Nanohedra: using symmetry to design self assembling protein cages, layers, crystals, and filaments.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. Feb 2001. 98(5):2217-21. 2001 PMID: 11226219